Academic Catalog

Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 100:  3 s.h.  
General Biology  (G2)  

An introduction to biology with emphasis on cell structure, metabolism, genetics, behavior, ecology, adaptations, organ systems and evolution. 2 hours lec., 2 hours lab. No credit toward BIOL major.

BIOL 101:  4 s.h.  
Foundations of Biology  (G2)  

This introduction of biological principles provides the foundation of modern biological knowledge essential for all higher-level courses. Topics include cell structure and function, cellular reproduction, energy acquisition, biochemical pathways, mechanisms of inheritance, natural selection, speciation and evolution. 2 hrs. lec., 1 hr. discussion, 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall, spring. Prereq: Biology major or biology minor or permission of instructor.

BIOL 108H:  1 s.h.  
Hnrs:Freshman Biology Seminar  

Emphasis on the intellectual and historical context of the core ideas of BIOL 100 and an in-depth exploration of ideas raised in lecture and labora¬tory. Satisfies the honors lab when taken with Biology 100. 1 hr. seminar. Offered in fall, spring. Prereq or coreq: BIOL 100 or 101.

BIOL 140:  4 s.h.  
Introductory Ecology  (G2)  

Introductory course in ecology (interactions of living organisms with the environment), evolution (adaptations of living organisms to the environment), and the environment of life on planet earth. Important applied ecological topics such as agriculture and forestry, exploitation of populations, effects of disturbance and climate change, and conservation of biological diversity also are examined. The course covers significant content of the Academic Standards for Environment and Ecology and the Middle Level Science Competencies as required by the Pa. Dept. of Education. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. No credit toward BIOL major. Prereq: ENGL 110, COMM 100 and completion of one course of MATH in college; acceptable courses include MATH 101, MATH 104 or higher. In addition, BIOL 100 or BIOL 101 is recommended.

BIOL 179:  3 s.h.  
Experimental  

Experimental

BIOL 204:  3 s.h.  
Human Biology  (G2, W)  

A non-laboratory course in human biology designed specifically for those students planning to specialize in social work, psychology or related fields. An overview of the changes that take place in the course of a human lifetime; basics of human evolution, ecology, behavior, anatomy and physiology of the human organism are discussed. 3 hrs. lec. Offered fall, spring. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101, or permission of instructor, and ENGL 110. No credit toward BIOL major.

BIOL 205:  3 s.h.  
Heredity and Human Affairs  (G2)  

Genetics for non-majors with reference to human heredity and development. The social implications of recent advances in genetics are considered. 3 hrs. lec. Offered periodically. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101, or permission of instructor or RN, and MATH 1**. No credit toward BIOL major.

BIOL 207:  3 s.h.  
Human Sexuality  (D, G2, W)  

Study of the nature of human sexuality, particularly as it relates to biological phenomena. Discussions and films will cover the biology of human reproduction, biology of human sexual behavior and its implications. 3 hrs. lec. Offered periodically. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101, or permission of instructor or RN, and ENGL 110. No credit toward BIOL major.

BIOL 208:  3 s.h.  
Plants and People  (G2)  

Explores uses of plants and plant products by man and their impact on the development of civilization. Characteristics of plants that make them suitable for food, shelter, clothing, energy, medicines, entertainment, objects of worship, microclimate modification and aesthetic objects are discussed. 3 hrs. lec. Offered periodically. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101, or permission of instructor. No credit toward BIOL major.

BIOL 211:  4 s.h.  
Concepts of Zoology  (G2)  

Study of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Classification, reproduction, development, ecology, physiology, behavior, genetics, scientific methodology (including simple statistical approaches), and evolution. Laboratory studies include microscopy, dissections, live observations, computer exercises and experimentation. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Prereq: BIOL 101 or BIOL 100 with a grade of C- or higher for non-majors; B- or higher in BIOL 100 for biology majors.

BIOL 212H:  1 s.h.  
Hnrs:Zoology Seminar  

Continuation of BIOL 211. Original investigations and/or readings and discussions of the zoological literature about the diverse adaptations of animals to their environments. Completion of both BIOL/HNRS 212 and BIOL 211 earns 5 credits to be counted as one course in the G2 block. BIOL/HNRS 212 may not be used independently to fulfill a G2 requirement. 1 hr. seminar. Offered periodically. Prereq: completion of BIOL 211 with a grade of B- or higher and member of University Honors College, or 3.35 GPA, or instructor’s permission.

BIOL 221:  4 s.h.  
Concepts of Botany  (G2)  

Consideration of features unique to plants such as localized meristems and open growth, water relations, photosynthesis, cell structure. An integrated study of plant structure and function using angiosperms as principal examples. Includes brief discussions of plant and fungal diversity, plant ecology and evolution and economic botany. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Prereq: BIOL 101 or BIOL 100 with a grade of C- or higher; B- or higher in BIOL 100 for biology majors.

BIOL 222H:  1 s.h.  
Hnrs:Problem Solving In Botany  

A botanical science investigation of a problem or series of problems. Students define a problem with a botanical basis, search appropriate literature, formulate hypotheses and collect appropriate information to test hypotheses through experimentation and data gathering. Completion of both BIOL/ HNRS 222 and BIOL 221 earns 5 credits to be counted as one course in the G2 block. BIOL/HNRS 222 may not be used independently to fulfill a G2 requirement. 1 hr. seminar. Offered periodically. Prereq: completion of BIOL 221 with a grade of B- or higher and member University Honors College, or 3.35 GPA, or instructor’s permission.

BIOL 241:  3 s.h.  
Principles of Ecology  

Ecological principles underlying physiological adaptations of organisms to their environment, population dynamics, community analysis and ecosystem studies. Ecological and evolutionary theory emphasized with examples from aquatic and terrestrial habitats. 3 hrs. lec. Offered in fall, spring. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101 and MATH 235, 151, 160 or 161. No credit toward BIOL major.

BIOL 254:  4 s.h.  
Human Anatomy & Physiology I  

Study of the structure and function of the human body. This first semester of a two-semester sequence deals with the development, histology, gross anatomy, function and pathophysiology of the cutaneous, skeletal, muscular and nervous systems. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101.

BIOL 255:  4 s.h.  
Human Anatomy & Physiology II  

Study of the structure and function of the human body. This second semester of a two-semester sequence deals with the development, histology, gross anatomy, function and pathophysiology of the endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 254.

BIOL 255H:  4 s.h.  
Hon: Human Anat/Phys 2  
BIOL 256:  3 s.h.  
Nutrition  (G2, W)  

Principles of adequate nutrition including digestion and metabolism of foods; energy, protein, mineral and vitamin needs; environmental and industrial contaminants, additives and carcinogens; dietary treatment for nutritional disorders. 3 hrs. lec. Offered in fall, spring. Prereq: BIOL 100 and ENGL 110. No credit toward BIOL major or minor. No credit given if credit earned for BIOL 352 or WSSD 452.

BIOL 257:  1 s.h.  
Introduction to Allied Health Professions  

A survey of the various disciplines in the allied health field. The course describes the type of training offered by hospitals for students who are planning to major in a health profession and for students who are undecided on a career. 1 hr. lec. Offered in fall.

BIOL 266H:  1 s.h.  
Hnrs:Adv Princ Cell Biology  

Cellular operations and processes: hormonal control of cell physiology, secretory activities and vesicular trafficking, control of cell division, neu¬rotransmission, control of muscle contraction, signal transduction, interrupted genes, cell recognition, etc. Students explore and lead discussions on one of these topics. Completion of both BIOL/HNRS 266 and BIOL 263 earns 5 credits to be counted as one course in the G2 block. BIOL/ HNRS 266 may not be used independently to fulfill a G2 requirement. 1 hr. seminar. Offered periodically. Prereq: completion of BIOL 362 or BIOL 263 with a grade of B- or higher and member of University Honors College, or 3.35 GPA, or instructor’s permission.

BIOL 281:  3 s.h.  
Behavioral Biology  (G2, W)  

Provides an evolutionary and ethological frame of reference for further studies in psychology and animal behavior. Lectures supplemented by demonstrations and A-V media cover animal diversity, nervous systems, sensory reception, communication and behavior. 3 hrs. lec. Offered in fall or spring. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101, and ENGL 110. No credit toward BIOL major.

BIOL 290:  3 s.h.  
Coastal Marine Biology  

Introduction to marine organisms, marine communities, and the physical, chemical, and biological parameters that shape them; laboratory and field work will emphasize local coastal marine ecosystems. 2 hrs. lee., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in summer at the Chincoteague Bay Field Station. Prereq: BIOL 211 or 1 year of college biology or permission of instructor. No credit given If credit earned for BIOL 291.

BIOL 291:  4 s.h.  
Marine Biology  (G2)  

Phylogeny, morphology and ecology of marine organisms. Similarities and differences in solutions to problems of life in the marine environment are stressed. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Weekend field trips. Offered in fall. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 211.

BIOL 292:  1 s.h.  
Problem Solving in Marine Biol  

An introduction to foundational topics within marine biology, Including (1) quantitative reasoning for aquatic biologists, (2) marine geography and mapping, (3) life in a fluid environment, (4) microcosms: marine aquarium systems, (5) scientific Illustration, (6) electronic resources In marine biology, (7) Internships, coops, jobs, and careers in marine biology, and (8) current topics. Offered In summer. Prereq: placement in college-level mathematics or permission of instructor. No credit given if credit earned for BIOL 291.

BIOL 293:  3 s.h.  
Coastal Ornithology  

Students will achieve a strong understanding of a variety of aspects in ornithology with the strongest focus on field techniques, including identification. Material covered will include evolution, anatomy, physiology, behavior and ecology. A portion of the course will include an overview of the avian families of North America, especially those found in coastal regions along the mid-Atlantic seaboard. The field component for this course will include mist netting, census techniques and field identification. Emphasis will be placed on field research and a portion of the course will involve the development of a novel research idea in ornithology.

BIOL 294:  3 s.h.  
Coral Reef Ecology  

The focus of this course is to introduce students to the unique aspects of coral reefs, and to provide a working knowledge of reef species and reef ecology. Students will learn basic taxonomy, biology, ecology, and conservation of coral reefs and the organisms associated with this habitat. Laboratory will consist of hands-on field experiences in a coral reef habitat. Students will learn techniques for study and assessment of marine habitats and complete an independent project.

BIOL 295:  3 s.h.  
Marine Invertebrates  

The invertebrate phyla with emphasis on development, reproduction, structure, function and classification of selected marine organisms. Laboratory and field experience in collection, preservation and classification of the phyla.

BIOL 296:  3 s.h.  
Marine Ecology  

Interrelationships among animals, plants and physical and chemical aspects of the environment will be studied, with stress on adaptations for survival that are unique to the marine environment.

BIOL 300:  3-12 s.h.  
Co-Op Ed Experience in Biol  

Co-Op Ed Experience in Biol

BIOL 318:  4 s.h.  
Comparative Vertbrate Anatomy  

Functional and comparative anatomy of selected vertebrates with developmental and evolutionary perspectives. Lab will primarily consist of dissection and histological analyses of animals representing various vertebrate classes. Comparisons between animals at the same level, and to see diverse features superimposed upon a common pattern. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring, 2 of 3 years. Prereq: BIOL 211 and BIOL 362 or 263, or permission of instructor.

BIOL 324:  4 s.h.  
Plant Biochemistry  

A study of enzymes and pathways involved in plant intermediary as related to plant cell structure, function and plant development. Topics include plant bioenergetics, biosynthesis of plant hormones and elicitor molecules, signal perception and transduction, and secondary metabolites (natural products). 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 221 and BIOL 362 or BIOL 263, CHEM 232 or CHEM 235.

BIOL 325:  3 s.h.  
Plant Systematics  

A survey of local vascular flora, use of dichotomous keys in identifying plants, distinguishing features of common plant families, principles of plant systematics. Phylogenetic, biosystematic and nomenclatural concepts are considered. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 221.

BIOL 327:  3 s.h.  
Horticultural Science  

Principles of horticultural science including regulation of plant growth, propagation and breeding, plant nutrition, pruning, plant diseases and special topics related to individual types of plants. Laboratory includes propagation and handling of plants in the greenhouse and field trips. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 221 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 329:  3 s.h.  
Plant-Insect Interactions  

The chemical and biological interactions between plants and insects will be extensively examined with particular emphasis on the chemical ecology of important behaviors such as herbivory, oviposition, and pollination. The chemical communications between plants and insects will be examined regarding how plant-produced chemicals influence, both directly and indirectly, the behaviors of insects. Chemical, anatomical, behavioral, environmental and evolutionary concepts linked to plant-insect interactions will be examined. Unique laboratory experiences will include the design and implementation of an independent research project and the rearing of Lepidoptera to establish research colonies. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Prereq: BIOL 221, BIOL 211, and either CHEM 231 or CHEM 235 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 340:  3 s.h.  
Prspctv in Environm Awareness  (P)  

Interdisciplinary study of current environmental problems and their implications on future habitability of the planet. Physical, biological and social aspects of alterations to ecosystems presented and solutions considered. Course includes lectures, open forums and student participation. Offered in fall and spring. Prereq: COMM 100, ENGL 110, junior status and at least one science (G2 block) and one social science course (G3 block).

BIOL 340H:  3 s.h.  
HNRS:Persp in Environ Awarenes  (P)  
BIOL 343:  4 s.h.  
Principles of Ecology & Evolution  

The basic concepts and principles of evolution and ecology. Topics include natural selection, genetic variation, macro- and microevolution, population genetics, evolutionary stable strategies, species concepts, biodiversity, extinction, reproductive strategies, population dynamics, the ecological niche concept, predation, competition, mutualism, parasitism, coevolution, biogeography, disturbance ecology, and ecosystem structure and function. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall and spring. Prereq: BIOL 101 or 100 with a grade of C- or higher; B- or higher in BIOL 100 for biology majors; C- or higher in BIOL 211 and BIOL 221; MATH 151, 160 or math equivalent; ENGL 110.

BIOL 343H:  4 s.h.  
Hon: Ecology and Evolution  
BIOL 344:  3 s.h.  
Population Community Ecology  

An intermediate course that will explore population biology, species interactions, trophic structure, community organization, succession, island biogeography and biological diversity at a more advanced level than BIOL 343. The laboratory portion of the course will focus on the use of quantitative methods and manipulative experimental designs to verify fundamental principles and test new hypotheses. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall or spring. Prereq: BIOL 343, MATH 151 or MATH 161, and BIOL 375.

BIOL 346:  3 s.h.  
Ornithology  (W)  

Ecology, behavior, taxonomy and evolution of birds with emphasis on field studies. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Weekend field trips. Offered in spring. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 211.

BIOL 352:  3 s.h.  
Nutritional Science  (W)  

Biological and biochemical roles of nutrients for the proper functioning of the human body. Designed for students with a more advanced understanding of chemistry and math. Nutrition concepts will be used to design and evaluate personal diet plans. No credit given if credit earned for BIOL 256. (BIOL 256 does not count for biology majors or minors.) Offered in fall, spring. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 362 or BIOL 263, ENGL 110.

BIOL 356:  5 s.h.  
Functional Human Anatomy  

A systemic approach to the study of the structure of the human body with discussion of general function. Course designed primarily for those planning to enter medical or allied health professions. Clinical laboratory experiences related to human anatomy. 3 hrs. lec., 4 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 211 and BIOL 362 or BIOL 263.

BIOL 361:  4 s.h.  
Microbiology  

The structure, physiology and ecology of microorganisms. Symbiotic associations between organisms will be examined in depth. Principles of microbial virulence and immunology are also discussed. Laboratory investigations include the isolation and identification of unknown microorganisms. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall. Prereq: BIOL101 C- or better or BIOL 100 B- or better; CHEM 112 (Prereq or Coreq) or CHEM 104

BIOL 361H:  4 s.h.  
Hon: Microbiology  
BIOL 362:  4 s.h.  
Cell and Developmental Biology  (G2, W)  

Cell structure and function, including cell ultrastructure, methods used in cell biology research, cell motility, signal transduction, cell division, macromolecules, metabolism and the cytomembrane system. Basic concepts in developmental biology are also covered: fertilization, early embryonic cleavage in model systems, cell-cell communication, extracellular matrix and research methods. Examples from developmental biology are employed to illustrate the functions and roles of cellular structures and processes. Laboratory includes isolation of cell components, fertilization and cleavage in sea urchins, microscopy and other techniques used in the study of cell and developmental biology. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall and spring. Prereq: BIOL 101 or 100 with a grade of C- or higher; B- or higher in BIOL 100 for biology majors; ENGL 110; CHEM 112 (Prereq or Coreq).

BIOL 362H:  4 s.h.  
HNRS:Cell and Devel Biology  
BIOL 363:  3 s.h.  
Medical Microbiology  

An in-depth exploration into the nature of disease-causing microorganisms, with an emphasis on medically important bacteria, viruses and fungi. This course will provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure of microorganisms, epidemiology and pathogenesis of microbial diseases, control of microbes, host responses to infection, vaccination strategies and antimicrobial therapy. 3 hrs. lec. Offered periodically in fall or spring. Prereq: BIOL 362 or BIOL 263.

BIOL 364:  4 s.h.  
Foundations of Genetics & Molecular Biology  

Concepts and principles essential for a basic understanding of genetics and molecular biology are covered. Topics include Mendelian genetics, gene mapping, molecular structure of the gene, gene expression and regulation, chromatin structure, molecular methodologies, human genome project, population genetics and evolution. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall, spring. Prereq: BIOL 101 or 100 with a grade of C- or higher; B- or higher in BIOL 100 for biology majors; CHEM 112.

BIOL 375:  3 s.h.  
Biometry  

Use of statistical techniques in descriptive and experimental biology and the use of mathematical models in describing biological phenomena. 3 hrs. lec. Offered in fall, spring. Prereq: BIOL 100 or BIOL 101, and MATH 151 or higher.

BIOL 375H:  3 s.h.  
Hon: Biometry  
BIOL 385:  3 s.h.  
Principles of Animal Behavior  

Animal groups from protozoa to mammals, studied from an ethologist's point of view. Inheritance, learning, development and motivations will be covered. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hr. labs. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 211 and Junior Standing. BIOL 343 recommended.

BIOL 385H:  3 s.h.  
H: Princ of Animal Behavior  
BIOL 392:  3 s.h.  
Marine Mammals  

The distribution, population size, physiology, evolution, adaptations and ecological relationships of marine mammals will be studied with an emphasis on mammals of the Atlantic Ocean. This course will stress hands-on understanding of marine mammal physiology, behavior, population dynamics and species diversity. Laboratory and field work will include an extended off-campus field trip to facilities holding and/or studying marine mammals of the NE Atlantic Ocean. In addition, the laboratory portion of this course will emphasize data collection in the field, and subsequent analysis and presentation of the data through a required mini-research project.

BIOL 396:  3 s.h.  
Ichthyology  

Morphology, anatomy, physiology, systematics and behavior of fishes. Laboratory and field experiences involve collection and study of specimens from nearby field sites. Zoogeography, life histories and speciation also discussed. Prereq: BIOL 211 or 1 year college biology (department override required if BIOL 211 not completed)

BIOL 397:  3 s.h.  
Marine Botany  

The taxonomy, ecology, distribution, life histories, physiology and economic status of marine and marine-fringe plants of the Middle Atlantic coast. Covers techniques of collecting, preserving, identifying and cataloging.

BIOL 400:  3-12 s.h.  
Co-Op Ed Experience in Biol  

Co-Op Ed Experience in Biol

BIOL 415:  3 s.h.  
Mammalogy  (W)  

Phylogeny, taxonomy, adaptations, behavior and ecological relationships of mammals. Acquisition of laboratory and field techniques are stressed. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Weekend field trips. Offered periodically in fall. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 211.

BIOL 415H:  3 s.h.  
Hon: Mammalogy  (W)  
BIOL 416:  3 s.h.  
Entomology  

Introduction to insects with emphasis on structure and function, behavior, adaptations, ecology, systematics, and economic and medical significance. Collecting, pinning and preservation techniques are covered. Field trips. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered periodically. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 211.

BIOL 417:  3 s.h.  
Parasitology  

Biology of parasites and their host/parasite relationships are considered. Parasites infesting humans and domestic animals stressed. Includes practical aspects of diagnosis. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered periodically. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 211. BIOL 362 or BIOL 263 recommended.

BIOL 418:  4 s.h.  
Aquatic Entomology  

Aquatic entomology covers topics such as aquatic insect morphology, physiology, ecology, behavior and evolution in a variety of aquatic systems and includes a significant taxonomic component. Each student will be required to make an aquatic insect collection. Prereq: BIOL 211 and BIOL 343 or permission of instructor. 3 hrs lec., 3 hrs. lab.

BIOL 424:  3 s.h.  
Mycology  

The taxonomy, morphology, physiology and ecology of fungi. Laboratory activities include surveys of local populations of fleshy fungi, fungal pathogens of plants and soil fungi; physiological studies on growth and reproduction; experimental studies of fungal ecology; and studies of comparative morphology of diverse fungal groups. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered periodically. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 221 and BIOL 362 or BIOL 263.

BIOL 435:  3 s.h.  
Animal Physiology  

Structure and functions of animals. Independent investigation and recent physiological theories emphasized. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 211 and BIOL 362 or BIOL 263; CHEM 112.

BIOL 436:  3 s.h.  
Plant Physiology  

Life processes of plants. Water relations, nutrition, translocation, photosynthesis, metabolism, growth, development and reproduction will be considered with particular reference to higher plants. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 221 and BIOL 362 or BIOL 263. CHEM 231 or 235 recommended.

BIOL 437:  3 s.h.  
Endocrinology  

The role of hormones in the integration and control of physiological and developmental process is stressed as well as the molecular mechanism of hormone action. 3 hrs. lec. Offered in fall. Prereq: BIOL 362 or BIOL 263.

BIOL 437H:  3 s.h.  
Hon: Endocrinology  
BIOL 438:  3 s.h.  
Neurobiology  

The structure and function of the nervous system. Lectures will cover a broad range of topics, from the molecular to the cognitive. One of the major themes is the relationship between the brain and behavior. 3 hrs. lec. Offered periodically. Prereq: BIOL 362 or BIOL 263.

BIOL 442:  3 s.h.  
Wildlife Ecology & Management  

Wildlife management involves protecting and conserving endangered species, increasing the number of game species and controlling pest species. We will discuss how the understanding of wildlife ecology, history, policy and statistics help shape the decisions a wildlife manager makes in the real world. Unique laboratory experiences will include field orienteering, radiotracking, soil and water assessment, vegetative measurements and animal trapping. Students will use these lab experiences to collect and analyze data in the development of a wildlife management plan. 2 hrs.lec., 3 hrs.lab. Prereq: BIOL 375 and BIOL 343.

BIOL 443:  3 s.h.  
Conservation Biology  

Population ecology and genetics applied to the conservation of rare, threatened and endangered species. Emphasis on the regulation of abundance, theoretical models of population dynamics, experimental design, sampling approaches and case studies. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered annually (usually in fall). Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 101, 343.

BIOL 445:  3 s.h.  
Aquatic Biology  

Study of the physical and biotic aspects of temporary pools, streams, ponds and rivers. Field trips. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 211, 221, PHYS 132 or 232 desirable.

BIOL 446:  3 s.h.  
Ecosystems  (W)  

Ecosystem processes including nutrient cycles, energy budgets and trophodynamics are discussed for terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. Processes are discussed for ecosystem types such as those controlled by fire, volcanism, chemosynthetic bacteria, detrital food resources, herbivory and predation. Ecosystems viewed in a global perspective to understand global carbon and nutrient cycles. 3 hrs. lec./discussion. Offered in spring of even years. Prereq: BIOL 343 and ENGL 110.

BIOL 447:  4 s.h.  
Chesapeake Bay System  (W)  

Study of the effects of human activity on the ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay System and the role of ecological principles in current restoration efforts. Investigation of how agricultural practices, riparian forests, tidal and nontidal wetlands and urban development affect the input of nutrients and toxins, and the estuarine processes in Chesapeake Bay that cause eutrophication and population declines in fisheries. 2 hrs. lec., 4 hrs. lab/field. Offered in fall. Prereq: BIOL 343 and ENGL 110.

BIOL 454:  2 s.h.  
Immunology  

The development of humoral and cellular immunity to an antigenic stimulus is discussed. Role of these mechanisms in immunogenetics, immunologically mediated disease, immunological protection against infectious agents and cancer also considered. 2 hrs. lec. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 362 or 263.

BIOL 455:  3 s.h.  
Cardiopulmonary Physiology  

Cardiovascular and pulmonary function. Covers heart muscle, electro-mechanical properties of the heart, hemodynamics, mechanics of ventilation, gas transport and cardiopulmonary insufficiencies. Laboratory exercises include use of human subjects, animal experimentation and computer simulations. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 211, 362 or 263, 356 and CHEM 231 or 235 for the B.S. in biology; CHEM 103 and CHEM 104 for the B.S. in allied health technology.

BIOL 461H:  3 s.h.  
H:General Microbiology  
BIOL 462:  4 s.h.  
Molecular Biology  (W)  

The molecular and macromolecular basis of life. The structure and function of cellular macromolecules, molecular techniques of genetic analysis and the control of cellular processes will be examined in depth. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall. Prereq: BIOL 362, 364 or 365, and ENGL 110. BIOL 461 or CHEM 326 recommended.

BIOL 463:  4 s.h.  
Virology  

Comprehensive investigation of animal viruses. In- depth analysis of virus particles, modes of replication, epidemiology of virus infection, virus host interactions and vaccines. Focus is on medically important viruses such as herpes, influenza, hepatitis and human immunodeficiency viruses. Laboratory exercises include the culture and analysis of viruses in bacterial and mammalian systems. 3 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in fall. Prereq: 364 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 465:  3 s.h.  
Developmental Biology  

Principles of development and differentiation in animals and plants at the molecular and supramolecular levels of organization. The laboratory includes both experimental and descriptive embryology. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab. Offered in spring. BIOL 362 or 263, 364 or 365, or permission of instructor.

BIOL 466:  3 s.h.  
Molecular and Cell Techniques  

Application and theory of techniques commonly used in biotechnology, and cell and molecular biological research. Cell culture, plant tissue culture, immunological techniques, cell fusion, radioisotope labeling and detection, centrifugation, microscopic techniques and electrophoretic protocols will be covered in depth. Intended for biology B.S. majors in the molecular biology/biotechnology option. 5 hrs. integrated lecture/lab. Offered in spring. Prereq: BIOL 462. BIOL 461 recommended.

BIOL 467:  3 s.h.  
Human Genetics:Analysis/Apps  (W)  

Applications of traditional and molecular approaches in understanding the genetic basis for human traits. Gene mapping and identification, cytogenetics and DNA sequence analysis will be covered in depth. Gene function, regulation, mutations and cloning will be explored in the context of human diseases. The Human Genome Project, genetic diagnostics, gene therapy and transgenic organisms will be addressed, along with the genetic basis of cancer, behavior, immunity and development. Genetic counseling and medical genetics will be discussed. 3 hrs. lec./discussion. Offered annually. Prereq: BIOL 364 or 365, ENGL 110.

BIOL 470:  1,2 s.h.  
Biology Colloquium  

An opportunity to meet visiting scientists and to discuss their research work. Students will read and discuss, in a seminar format, assigned papers prior to the presentation of the colloquium by the visiting scholar. In addition, they will be expected to participate in discussions with the speaker after the colloquium hosted by the Department of Biology. Offered periodically. Prereq: BIOL 101 or BIOL 100. Other courses indicated by instructor.

BIOL 471:  4 s.h.  
Topics In Biology  

Detailed investigations of a topic of current interest. Topic to be announced each time course is offered. Offered periodically. Prereq: Upperclass standing or permission of instructor.

BIOL 471H:  4 s.h.  
Hon: Topics in BIOL:  
BIOL 472:  1,2 s.h.  
Seminar In Biology  

Group discussions. General theme to be determined by professor. Offered annually. Prereq: 16 s.h. of biology and courses indicated by the instructor.

BIOL 472H:  1,2 s.h.  
HNRS:Seminar in Biology  
BIOL 473:  1 s.h.  
Methods/Teaching Biological Issues in the Secondary School  

A seminar for prospective life science teachers to consider methods a teacher might employ to present controversial aspects of biology in intellectually honest, balanced ways which also demonstrate sensitivity to the various moral, ethical and political dilemmas secondary school students may encounter. 1 hr. lecture. Offered annually. Co- or prereq: EDSE 435; required of all B.S.Ed./BIOL students prior to or with EDSE 461.

BIOL 483:  3 s.h.  
Applied Ethology  

An introduction to applied animal behavior, including (1) the behavior of companion animals, animals in zoos & aquaria, animals in labs, and animals in agriculture/aquaculture; (2) animal welfare, (3) ethical issues in animal use, (4) methods of training captive animals, and (5) career options and certifications in animal behavior. 3 hrs lecture. Offered periodically. Prereq: PSYC 316 or BIOL 385; PSYC 300 or BIOL 300 or PSYC 495; Senior standing or permission of instructor. Students cannot also earn credit in PSYC 483.

BIOL 484:  3 s.h.  
Mech of Animal Behavior  

An exploration of the physiological mechanisms that regulate animal behavior. Nervous and endocrine system physiology are examined and applied to understanding behavioral neuroendocrinology, the integrative study of hormones, brain, and behavior. Research methods in behavioral physiology and the importance of genetic control mechanisms are recurrent topics. A comparative approach is taken, and behavioral physiology is considered in ecological and evolutionary contexts. 3 hrs. lec. Prereq: BIOL 362 or permission of instructor. BIOL 385 recommended.

BIOL 486:  3 s.h.  
Behavioral Ecology  

An in-depth examination of the evolution of animal behavior via natural selection with a on the adaptive significance (i.e., fitness consequences) of behaviors involved in foraging, resource defense, cooperation, mating, parental care, and communication. Predator-prey interactions, animal sociality, and approaches to studying behavioral ecology are recurrent topics. Involves a substantial field component where students learn to observe, document, and quantify animal behavior in the wild. 2 hrs. lec., 3 hrs. lab/field. Prereq: C- or higher in BIOL 343. BIOL 385 recommended.

BIOL 489:  1-4 s.h.  
Honors Course  

For the definition of honors course and student eligibility, refer to the Special Academic Opportunities section of this catalog.

BIOL 495:  3 s.h.  
Biological Oceanography  

Intensive summer lecture and field course teaching the physical, chemical and biological factors controlling the structure and dynamics of marine ecosystems. Classroom instruction focuses on theoretical principles concerning the environmental control of phytoplankton communities by sunlight, nutrients and grazing. The dynamics and complexity of marine food webs including the phytoplankton, zooplankton and upper trophic levels. Laboratory and field instruction focuses on ocean monitoring and sampling from research vessels, biomass determination and identification of key plankton species, measurement of the rates of net and gross primary production using oxygen light-dark bottle experiments, and optical and chemical techniques of determining phytoplankton biomass and species composition. Approximately 40-50% of course time is spent in field. Prerequisites: C- or higher in ESCI 261 and BIOL (211 or 221), or permission of instructor.

BIOL 498:  1-4 s.h.  
Independent Study  

Student research on a topic agreed on with faculty supervisor. Applicant for independent study is required to submit a Request for Special Study Assignment form.

BIOL 499:  1-4 s.h.  
Departmental Honors  

For the definition of honors course and student eligibility, refer to the Special Academic Opportunities section of this catalog.

BIOL 564:  4 s.h.  
Genetics and Molecular Biology  

Genetics and Molecular Biology

BIOL 589:  4 s.h.  
Topics In Biology  

Topics In Biology

BIOL 602:  1-4 s.h.  
Prblms:  

Prblms:

BIOL 625:  3 s.h.  
Plant Systematics  

Plant Systematics

BIOL 643:  3 s.h.  
Conservation Biology  

Conservation Biology

BIOL 647:  4 s.h.  
Chesapeake Bay System  

Chesapeake Bay System

BIOL 651:  3 s.h.  
General Microbiology  

General Microbiology

BIOL 662:  4 s.h.  
Molecular Biology  

Molecular Biology

BIOL 667:  3 s.h.  
Human Genetics:Analysis/Apps  

Human Genetics:Analysis/Apps

BIOL 685:  3 s.h.  
Animal Behavior  

Animal Behavior